A gynecologist is a specialist, who deals with the health of the female and the breasts. The gynecologist performs gynecological examinations of genital organs, helps to select the appropriate contraceptive, or plan and monitor pregnancy. The doctor also performs the ultrasound examinations or suggests taking additional tests like PAP-test and STDs (sexually transmitted diseases), the control of hormone levels), if necessary. Gynecologists also deal with diagnosis and treatment of women’s infertility. It is advisable to visit gynecologist regularly at least once every 1-2 years.
Frozen embryo transfer€552–€1550
An embryo is an early stage of eukaryotic organism, from which the fetus develops. If, after the IVF procedure, viable embryos remain, they can be frozen for later transplantation. Before the transfer embryos are unfrozen, only strong embryos with high chance of growing and developing are suitable for transplantation. Embryos are implanted into the uterus using a special catheter.
In vitro fertilization ( IVF )€629–€2904
In Vitro Fertilisation or IVF ("in vitro", in glass) is one of the methods used for infertility treatment. The procedure has several stages: 1) stimulation of female ovulation, 2) retrieval of eggs from the ovaries and collection of male germ cells or spermatozoa, 3) fertilization of eggs with sperm under specific conditions, 4) culturing of fertilized eggs for 2-6 days 5) transfer of developed embryo(s) to the uterus. The procedure is used when the reason of infertility is a pathologic condition of the fallopian tubes, an ovulation disorder, or a sperm disorder.
Insemination ( AID)€315–€937
Artificial Insemination by Donor AID is a method of infertility treatment that involves intrauterine insemination of an egg cell with donor sperm. Before the procedure ovarian stimulation is performed. At the time of expected ovulation, the suspension of donor's sperm cells is transferred to the uterus using a fine catheter. AID is recommended if the reason of infertility is partner's spermatozoa dysfunction.
Insemination ( AIH )€189–€507
Artificial Insemination by Husband AIHis a method of infertility treatment that involves intrauterine insemination of an egg cell with the husband’s sperm. Before the procedure ovarian stimulation is performed. At the time of expected ovulation, the male semen is prepared, and the suspension of moving spermatozoa is transferred into the uterus through a thin catheter. AIH is recommended if the reason of infertility is a milder sperm disorder of the partner, cervical problems, or if the cause of childlessness is unclear.
Intracytoplasmic sperm Injection ( ICSI )€430–€3581
Sperm injection into the cytoplasm of the ovum (egg cell) is one of the methods of artificial insemination. The fertilization of the ovum is carried out externally by embryologist under a microscope using a microinjector. A high quality embryo is transplanted into a woman's uterus within a few days, and others good quality embryos can be frozen. The ICSI method offers a good opportunity to overcome even the most severe male infertility problems.
Semen Analysis (Spermiogram) is a test that provides information about sperm concentration, sperm morphology and mobility, and other parameters. Semen analysis is a test used to determine the fertility potential of a man. Semen analysis evaluates a number of parameters for semen and sperms. A semen analysis should be evaluated with at least two samples taken 2-3 weeks apart because the number of sperms and density of semen can vary day by day and some conditions are likely to affect sperm levels (https://www.groupflorence.com/semen-analysis-spermiogram).
Semen Cryopreservation is a procedure that allows spermatozoa to be kept viable and lately be used in artificial insemination. The semen is collected by masturbation, rejected sexual intercourse or surgical extraction. The possibility of freezing semen can be used by men whose production of sperm can be absolutely defected because of illness or the effects of it´s treatment. Freezing semen is also an opportunity to have offspring for men, who does health-hazardous work and who are at risk of falling fertility.
Surgical sperm retrieval€400–€640
Surgical sperm retrieval (SSR) is the technique for collecting sperm directly from a man’s testicles, epididymis or vas deferens. This procedure is the only way to diagnose and treat azoospermia (low sperm count or no sperm in the semen). After surgical sperm retrieval the sperm can be used for Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). During this procedure the local anesthesia is used.
Female sterilization or laparoscopic sterilzation is a method of preventing pregnancies for women who do not want to give birth anymore. During the operation, the fallopian tubes are closed with clamps, cut through or removed. During the laparoscopic procedure, only a few small skin sections are made in the long abdominal wall, through which special instruments are inserted into the abdominal cavity. The operation is performed under general anesthesia. After sterilization, it is no longer possible to get pregnant naturally.
Diagnostic laparoscopy is the most informative diagnostic method in gynecology nowadays. During the procedure, a thin tube with camera (laparoscope) and laporoscopic hook are pushed through incisions in abdominal wall. It helps to manipulate the field of observation. With these tools, the doctor can observe the reproductive organs (uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries) in detail and, if it is necessary, take tissue samples (biopsy) or immediately apply surgical treatment. During this procedure the general anesthesia is used.
Hysteroscopy is a minimally invasive method to examine and treat the uterine cavity using a hysteroscope. During hysteroscopy, it is possible to detect and immediately resolve intrauterine pathology, clear away foreign bodies, take a tissue sample (biopsy), remove polyps and small myomas. Hysteroscopy is mostly performed under the general anesthesia.
Hysteroscopy is a minimally invasive inspection of the uterine cavity by hysteroscope. Hysteroscopy is beneficial in the diagnosis of several problems and diseases. For example, it is possible to specify the causes of heavy menstrual or postmenopausal bleeding, recurrent pregnancy loss and infertility. Hysteroscopy is performed under the general anesthesia.
Ovarian and Fallopian Tube Surgery€788–€3537
Laparoscopic ovarian and fallopian tube surgery or adnexal surgery is a specific type of minimally invasive surgery for freeing the tube or ovary from adhesions to reduce pain or improve fertility, remove ovarian cysts, opening the tube to remove an abnormality e.g. ectopic pregnancy etc. It is performed under the general anesthesia.
Pelvic laparoscopy is a modern, minimally invasive surgical procedure for removing a myoma (benign tumor of the womb) or the entire uterus. During the laparoscopic procedure the large abdominal incision is not needed. Only a few small incisions are made in order to insert specific surgical instruments into the abdominal cavity. During this procedure the general anesthesia is used.