A gynecologist is a specialist in the female reproductive system and breasts who performs gynecological examinations of genital organs, helps to select an appropriate contraceptive, and plan and monitor pregnancy. If necessary, the gynecologist also performs ultrasound examinations and suggests additional analyses, such as PAP test, STD (sexually transmitted diseases) tests or hormone level measurements. Gynecologists also deal with the diagnosis and treatment of women’s infertility. It is advisable to visit a gynecologist regularly at least once every 1–2 years.
In vitro fertilization ( IVF )€629–€2904
In vitro fertilisation or IVF (“in vitro”, in glass) is one of the methods used for infertility treatment. The procedure has several stages: 1) stimulation of female ovulation, 2) retrieval of eggs from the ovaries and collection of male germ cells or spermatozoa, 3) fertilization of eggs with sperm under specific conditions, 4) culture of fertilized eggs for 2-6 days, 5) transfer of the developed embryo(s) to the uterus. The procedure is suitable when infertility results from the pathology of fallopian tubes, ovulation disorders or sperm pathology.
Insemination ( AID)€315–€937
Artificial insemination by donor or AID is a method of infertility treatment that involves intrauterine insemination of the egg cell with donor sperm. Before the procedure ovarian stimulation is performed. At the time of expected ovulation, a suspension containing donor's active sperm cells is transferred to the uterus using a fine catheter. AID is recommended, if the reason of infertility is partner’s spermatozoa dysfunction.
Insemination ( AIH )€189–€458
Artificial insemination by husband or AIH is a method of infertility treatment that involves intrauterine insemination of the egg cell with husband’s sperm. Before the procedure ovarian stimulation is performed. At the time of expected ovulation, the male partner’s sperm is collected and prepared and a suspension containing active sperm cells is transferred into the uterus through a thin catheter. AIH is recommended, if the reason of infertility is partner's mild or moderate sperm disorder, woman’s cervical problems, or if the cause of childlessness is unclear.
Frozen embryo transfer€552–€1550
An embryo is an early stage of development of a eukaryotic organism. The embryo develops into a fetus. If there are good quality “leftover” embryos after the IVF procedure, they can be frozen for later transfer. Before the transfer, embryos are unfrozen. Only strong embryos with a high chance of growing and developing are suitable for the procedure. Embryos are transferred to the uterus by means of a special catheter.
Surgical sperm retrieval€400–€640
Surgical sperm retrieval or SSR is a technique for collecting sperm directly from a man’s ejaculatory tract, epididymis or testicles by means of aspiration. This procedure is the only way to diagnose and treat azoospermia (also known as no sperm count, a male fertility issue which occurs when there is virtually no sperm in a man’s ejaculate). The sperm cells obtained by surgical sperm retrieval can be used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Usually local anesthesia is used for the SSR procedure.
Intracytoplasmic sperm Injection ( ICSI )€430–€3581
Sperm injection into the cytoplasm of the ovum (egg cell) is one of the methods of artificial insemination. The fertilization of the ovum is carried out externally by an embryologist under a microscope using a microinjector. A high quality embryo is transplanted into a woman's uterus within a few days, and „leftover“ good quality embryos can be frozen. The ICSI method offers a good opportunity to overcome even the most severe male infertility problems.
Sperm freezing or cryopreservation is a procedure that allows sperm cells to be kept viable for a long time and later be used for artificial insemination. The sperm is collected by masturbation, interrupted sexual intercourse or surgical extraction. Freezing sperm is an option for men who are in danger of losing their sperm production capability because of an illness or the effects of its treatment. Also, freezing sperm offers an opportunity to have offspring in the future for men who are at risk of fertility loss because of hazardous or noxious working environment.
Semen Analysis (Spermiogram) is a test that provides information about sperm concentration, sperm morphology and mobility, and other parameters. Semen analysis is a test used to determine the fertility potential of a man. Semen analysis evaluates a number of parameters for semen and sperms. A semen analysis should be evaluated with at least two samples taken 2-3 weeks apart because the number of sperms and density of semen can vary day by day and some conditions are likely to affect sperm levels (https://www.groupflorence.com/semen-analysis-spermiogram).
Female sterilization is a method of preventing pregnancies for women who do not want to give birth anymore. During the operation, the fallopian tubes are closed with clamps, cut through or removed. During the laparoscopic procedure, instead of a long abdominal incision, only a few small skin incisions are made, through which special instruments are inserted into the abdominal cavity. The operation is performed under general anesthesia. After sterilization, it is no longer possible to get pregnant naturally.
Hysteroscopy is minimally invasive inspection of the uterine cavity by means of a special camera-guided endoscope called hysteroscope. Hysteroscopy is useful for diagnosing and specifying the causes of several problems and diseases such as heavy menstrual or postmenopausal bleeding, recurrent early pregnancy loss and infertility. Hysteroscopy is performed under general anesthesia.
Hysteroscopy with a surgical procedure€599–€3800
Hysteroscopy is minimally invasive inspection of the uterine cavity by means of a special camera-guided endoscope called hysteroscope. During the hysteroscopic procedure it is possible to detect and immediately resolve intrauterine pathologies, take tissue samples (biopsies) and remove foreign bodies, polyps and small myomas. Hysteroscopy is usually performed under general anesthesia.
Diagnostic laparoscopy is the most informative diagnostic method in gynecology nowadays. During the procedure, a thin tube with camera (laparoscope) and a laparoscopic hook for manipulating the camera are gently guided through small incisions in the skin into the abdominal cavity. The equipment allows the doctor to observe the reproductive organs (uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries) in detail and, if necessary, take tissue samples (biopsy) or immediately apply surgical treatment. Diagnostic laparoscopy is performed under general anesthesia.
Pelvic laparoscopy is a modern, minimally invasive surgical procedure for removing a myoma (benign tumor of the womb) or the entire uterus. The laparoscopic procedure enables to operate without making a large abdominal incision. Only a few small incisions are made in order to insert specific surgical instruments into the abdominal cavity. Pelvic laparoscopy is performed under general anesthesia.
Ovarian and Fallopian Tube Surgery€936–€3537
Laparoscopic ovarian and fallopian tube surgery or adnexal surgery is a specific type of minimally invasive surgery for freeing the tube or ovary from adhesions to reduce pain or improve fertility, remove ovarian cysts, opening the tube to remove an abnormality e.g. ectopic pregnancy etc. It is performed under the general anesthesia.