Removal of the foreskin or circumcision is a surgical procedure whereby the foreskin covering the penis head is completely removed and the wound sutured. Medical indications for the operation are phimosis (tight foreskin), paraphimosis (a condition when the foreskin gets stuck behind the penis head) or recurrent hygiene problems. In some cultures, male circumcision is a tradition.
Male sterilization or vasectomy is a surgical procedure whereby both sperm ducts are severed and then tied or sealed. To perform the operation, small skin incisions are made into the scrotum. The procedure is painless and either local or general anesthesia can be used. Vasectomy prevents sperm from entering the semen. As a rule, old sperm cells disappear from the semen after about 20 ejaculations. After that the man becomes sterile and will be unable to fertilize a woman. Vasectomy has no impact on penis erection or the pleasure derived from sex.
A urologist is specialized physician in the field of surgery who focuses on the surgically treatable diseases of the kidneys, urinary tract and male reproductive organs. Urologists diagnose and treat inflammatory diseases, male and female urination disorders, tumors, and problems related to kidney and urinary tract stones. During the first appointment, surgical treatment is usually not performed.