Neurosurgery is a surgical specialty devoted to the diagnosis and both surgical and non-surgical treatment of the diseases, malformations and injuries of the brain and spinal cord, meninges, cranial nerves, spinal nerve roots, peripheral nerves, autonomous nervous system, skull and vertebral column, and also blood circulation disorders in both adults and children. Neurosurgeon or brain surgeon is a specialized surgeon whose competence covers the diagnosis and surgical treatment of the diseases of the brain and spinal cord, but also meninges, cranial nerves, nerve roots, peripheral nerves and the skull and vertebral column. Most often, neurosurgeon performs surgical treatment of brain tumors, malformations of the brain (including cerebrovascular tumors and aneurysms) and traumatic injuries of the nervous system. The main difference between a neurologist and a neurosurgeon is that the neurologist does not treat patients with diseases of the nervous system with surgical methods. The most common neurosurgically treated diseases are brain tumors, compression of spinal cord, cerebrovascular aneurysms, intracranial hematomas, cerebrospinal fluid leaks, meningiomas, spinal cord injuries and lumbar spinal tumors. By electrically stimulating the deep structures of the brain and spinal cord it is also possible to treat such neurological diseases and conditions as Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, dystonias and chronic pain syndrome.
Electrical stimulation of the deep structures of the brain and spinal cord by means of surgically implanted electrodes is a new development in neurosurgical treatment. This method, called deep brain stimulation (DBS), is based on influencing the function of the deep nuclei of the brain with high-frequency electrical impulses emitted by a system consisting of electrodes, implanted permanently into the brain tissue, and a neurostimulator, implanted under the skin. Deep brain stimulation is used for the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric diseases that do not respond to conservative treatment (i.e. pharmacotherapy). Most frequently, deep brain stimulation is used for treating Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, dystonias (involuntary muscle contractions), Huntington’s disease also known as Huntington’s chorea, chronic pain and treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depression.
A neurosurgeon or a brain surgeon is a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of the disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system, including the meninges, cranial nerves, nerve roots, peripheral nerves, skull and vertebral column. Most often, neurosurgeons perform surgical treatment of brain tumors, malformations of the brain (including cerebrovascular tumors and aneurysms) and traumatic injuries of the nervous system. During the first appointment, the neurosurgeon usually examines the patient, and prescribes necessary tests and analyses. The neurosurgeon also gives advice about the prevention of the diseases of the nervous system and plans subsequent treatment.